[Past Question]: Psychological Bases for Differentiated Assessment With Answers

  1. Which of the Erik Erikson’s psychosocial crisis involves development of a sense of right or wrong ?
    A. Trust versus mistrust
    B. Initiative versus guilt
    C. Industry versus inferiority
    D. Autonomy versus shame and doubt
  2. A young child says “Mommy go” signifying that her mother is going to the market. What does this illustrate about language development?
    A. Babbling speech
    B. Overgeneralization
    C. Telegraphic speed
    D. Autonomous grammer
  3. When does Rule acquisition in language development begin in children?
    A. 2 ½ years
    B. 3 ½ years
    C. 4 ½ years
    D. 5 ½ years
  4. During which of Jean Piagets stages do children master the concept of conservation.
    A. Sensory motor
    B. Pre-operation
    C. Formal operation
    D. Concrete operational
  5. Which one of the following psychologist development a theory of intellectual development?
    A. Ausubel
    B. B. F. Sinner
    C. Jean Piaget
    D. Lawrence Kohlberg
  6. Which of the stages in the language development marked the child’s ability to say words consistently and intentionally?
    A. Holophracestic stage.
    B. Telegraphic stage
    C. Pre-linguistic stage
    D. Rule acquisition stage.
  7. Which of the following is a learning theory ?
    A. Behavioural theory
    B. Emergence theory
    C. Accretion theory
    D. Godman theory
  8. The process by which we learn to associate events or stimulate that frequenty happen together is referred to as ………………………..
    A. Operant conditioning
    B. Classical conditioning
    C. Reinforcement
    D. Inhabitation
  9. A theory that is based on the idea that individuals are unique in their ability to construct unique understandings of their immediate environments are referred to as …………
    A. Behaviourism
    B. Cognitivism
    C. Constructivism
    D. Reinforcement
  10. In the learning process, when behaviours are reinforced or punished to strengthening or extinguishing a response is known as ………………………
    A. Observational learning
    B. Classical conditioning
    C. System learning
    D. Operant conditioning
  11. The ‘aha’ experience is known as …………………
    A. Talent learning
    B. Insight learning
    C. Thoughtful learning
    D. Social learning
  12. A change in size, weight, stature and strength of various parts of the body is referred to as …………….
    A. Social development
    B. Cognitive development
    C. Physical development
    D. Moral development
  13. The both quantitative and qualitative changes that take place in children as they grow older is referred to as ……………..
    A. Motor development
    B. Social development
    C. Physical development
    D. Intellectual development
  1. All the following are behavior management strategies used in our classrooms, EXCEPT
    A. Build relationship
    B. Collaborative class rules
    C. Harsh
    D. Rewards
  2. Which of the Erik Erikson’s psychosocial crisis occurs during adolescence ?
    A. Identity versus confusion
    B. Generativity versus stagnation
    C. Intimacy versus isolation
    D. Integrity versus despair
  3. An assessment can be said to be formal if is based mainly on
    A. Quizzes
    B. Assignment
    C. Test
    D. Observation
  4. A group of psychological units describing a particular behavior of a student is known as ………………..
    A. Particular objective
    B. Practical skills
    C. Profile dimension
    D. Prolific dimension
  5. The process of assigning numbers to the attributes or traits possessed by a person according to specific rule is ………………………
    A. Assessment
    B. Assignment
    C. Evaluation
    D. Measurement
  6. To what percentage is all school-based assessment which replace continuous assessment scores currently conversed at the end of each term in Ghanaian basic schools?
    A. 30%
    B. 40%
    C. 60%
    D. 70%
  7. The process of obtaining information to make decisions on students, curricular, programme and educational policies is referred to as ………………..
    A. Evaluation
    B. Assessment
    C. Measurement
    D. Test


1a. Define the term “Differentiated assessment”-(2marks)
b.Discuss any four (4) principles of differentiated assessment-(8marks)

2a Define the concept “assessment” in education-(2marks)
b. Define each of the following as used in testing.
(i) Validity-(2marks)
(ii) Reliability-(2marks)
(iii)True score-(2marks)
(iv)Obtained score-(2marks)

  1. Describe any two (2) genetic and environmental factors each, that affects pre-natal development-(10marks)

4a. What is meant by physical Development of the child?-( 2marks.)
b. Explain any four (4) factors that ensure proper physical development of the child-(8marks)

  1. a. Define the following terms.
    (i) Norm- referenced interpretation-(3marks)
    (ii) Criterion- referenced interpretation-(3marks)
    b. State four (4) uses of norm- referenced interpretation of test scores-(4marks).


  1. B                                            11. B
  2. C                                            12. C
  3. A                                            13. D
  4. D                                            14. C
  5. C                                            15. A
  6. A                                            16. C
  7. A                                            17. C
  8. B                                            18. D
  9. C                                            19. A
  10. D                                            20. B


1a.Differentiated assessment is the type of assessment that involve teachers Considering different types of assessment strategies and ways students can demonstrate their understanding to cater for different learning needs, interest and abilities.
A= marked globally for 2marks
(b). Principles of differentiated assessment are,
Collecting data before, during and after teaching and learning experiences.
Using the evidence to identify a Student’s needs and strengths.
Using assessment information to guide differentiated teaching and learning.
Providing alternative methods and choices for students to demonstrate their knowledge, understanding and skills.
Considering what resources and stimulus materials will assist students.
providing individualised feedback to students to help identify strengths and areas for improvement.
providing opportunities to challenge students within their level of understanding and beyond.

2a. Assessment is defined as the process of obtaining information that is used for making decisions about students, curricula and programmes and educational policies.
Assessment is the purposeful, systematic and ongoing collection of information as evidence for use in making judgments of students learning curriculum, programmes and policies education.
A =Any one of the definition marked globally for 2 marks

(bi) Validity: Validity is defined as the “soundness or appropriateness of the interpretations and use of students ‘assessment results”. Validity emphasizes the interpretations and use of the results and not the test instruments.
marked globally for 2 marks

(ii) Reliability: Is the degree of consistency of assessment results. It is the degree to which assessment results are the same when the same tasks are completed on two different occasions or different but equivalent tasks are completed on the same or different occasions.
Marked globally for 2 marks

(iii)True score is the difference between the obtained and error scores. It is also the portion of the observed score that is not affected by random error.
Marked globally for 2 marks

(IV) Obtained score; Is the actual of raw scores obtained in a test or assessment.
marked globally for 2marks

(3i).Genetic factors
-Metabolic Disorders.

-Chromosomal abnormalities .
-Rhesus (Rh) factor
-Sickle cell anaemia.
-Congenital blood, lungs and heart diseases.

(ii)Environmental factors.
-Maternal malnutrition.
-Maternal age.
-Attempted abortion.
-Maternal diseases
-Maternal accidents.
-Maternal exposure to X-rays.
-Maternal emotional condition
-Drugs and Alcohol.

Any 2 genetic factors and 2 environmental factors well described for 2.5 each

4(a).physical development: Is refers to changes that take place in a child’s height, weight, bone thickness, muscle, brain etc as he / she growns. it includes motor abilities such as learning to walk, write, jump etc.

(b).Factors that ensure proper physical developments of the child are;
-Regular Exercises.
-Balance diet.

  • The child should be protected from Childhood diseases like malaria, polio, T.B, measles etc
    -The child should be given enough space to live and operate.
  • The child should be allowed to develop at his/her own rate
    -Talents should be identified and developed eg. running, jumping etc.
    B =) Any four (4) factors well explained for 2 marks each => 4×2 = 8 marks.
    Total = A+B = 2+8=10marks

(5ai) Norm-referenced interpretation: These describe test scores or performance in terms a student’s position in a reference group that has been administered the assessment. In other words, it compares individuals performance with others in the group who have taken the same test
(Ai)= marked globally for 3 marks

(aii) Criterion-referenced interpretation: These describe test scores or performance in terms of the kinds of tasks a person with a given score can do. The performance can be compared to a pre-established standard or criterion.

(ii) Marked globally for 3 marks

(b) State four (4) uses of Norm- referenced interpretation, are;

-Selection decisions.
-comparison decisions.
-Achievement testing
-monitoring decisions.
Any four (4) state for 1mark each

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